English Index

Now, therefore, with careful thought and due consideration, paying attention neither to the usefulness nor to the reputation of any arts or sciences, but to that faculty of our souls, if such there be, which by its nature loves the truth and does all things for the sake of the truth, let us examine this faculty...

(Plato, Philebos 58D)

Life seems to belong even to plants, but we are seeking what is peculiar to man. Let us exclude, therefore, the life of nutrition and growth. Next there would be a life of perception, but this also seems to be shared even by the horse, the ox, and every animal. There remains, then, the active life of the element that has a rational principle.    (...)    The function of man is a certain kind of life, which is an activity or actions of the soul implying a rational principle, and the function of a good man is the good and noble performance of these...

(Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics I,7)

'Omilos Meleton' is an Institute for various studies founded in 1976 and managed by a Fellowship. Its primary interest is Philosophy, focusing on Platonism, Vedanta and related systems of thought like Christian and Buddhist ethics. It has also courses such as Sanskrit, Comparative Mythology and Political Economy. The Institute is privately funded but occasionally receives Government grants. It provides further education mainly for interested adults but it runs also a kindergarden.

For the moment, this page contains the following studies, which can be downloaded and viewed with the aid of Adobe's Reader (unless otherwise noted).

'Advaita & Gnosticism' by N Kazanas

A study on the possible connection between the ancient Indian philosophical system Advaita (an aspect of Vedanta) and certain ideas that circulated in the first two centuries of the Christian Era in the Easter Mediterranean and particularly in Egypt. Also, an attempt to trace great philosophical ideas e.g. The Unity of Being, The identity of Man's self with the Godhead, etc in Hermetic texts, Vedanta, Christianity, Gnostic writings, Judaism, Greek Thought and Egyptian culture.
Published in VVRI Research Bulletin (Hoshiarpur) vol 2 (43-112), 2003.

(Download the PDF file - 230kB)

'A new date for the Rgveda' by N Kazanas.
This was published in Philosophy and Chronology, 2000, ed G C Pande & D Krishna, special issue of Journal of Indian Coucil of Philosophical Research (June, 2001). A shorter, slightly different version with the title 'The Rgveda and Indo-Europeans' by N Kazanas was published in the Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (ABORI), vol 80, 1999 (Pune, India, 2000). It presents the thesis that the RV is far older than mainstream indologists maintain and ascribes the composition of the bulk of it to the fourth millennium BC (some hymns even earlier). It argues that the IndoAryans were natives of Saptasindhu (ie the land of the Seven Rivers in what is today north-west India and Pakistan) examining archaeological, literary, linguistic and comparative-mythological material. Some of the arguments would need reformulation in view of new and firmer (mainly archaeoastronomical) evidence, which in fact reinforce the conlusions on the early date of the RV.
(Download the PDF file - 136kB)

'Edmund Leach on Racism & Indology' by S Kak
Sept 1999, with Prof Kak's permission (kak@ee.lsu.edu).
(Available as a standard web page)

'What is the Aryan Migration Theory?' by V Agarwal
May 2001, with author's permission (vishalagarwal@hotmail.com).
(Available as a standard web page)

'The RV Date - a Postscript', by N Kazanas
This examines some of Prof M Witzel's (erroneous) notions which perpetuate the AIT (=Aryan Invasion Theory) and which had not been discussed in 'The RV and IndoEuropeans'. It presents some new evidence and new ideas for a pre-3100 BC date of the RV and the indigenous origin of the IndoAryans and criticizes Prof Witzel's vicious attacks on some Indian and non-Indian scholars, who promote the indigenist point of view.
(Download the PDF file - 80kB)

'AIT and Scholarship' by N Kazanas
N Kazanas wrote 'AIT and Scholarship' in May-June 2001. This was first posted here. It deals with some additional (erroneous) notions of Prof M Witzel and the major (but not all) aspects of his 'Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts' (EJVS 7-3, pp 1-93, 2001). Apart from the AIT, this study examines other cases of corruption in academic disciplines like Egyptology, Anthropology etc, where evidence against maistream views is discarded, as well as the etymology of the terms 'academia' and 'academic' and the development from Plato's Academy in Athens to modern notions.
(Download the PDF file - 236kB)

'Reply to prof. Witzel' by N Kazanas
Prof Witzel wrote a very superficial critique of 'AIT and Scholarship' ignoring the title, lampooning the presentation of the development of modern academia and making all kinds of irrelevant remarks (5/7/01). So N Kazanas wrote a reply selecting some of the mosts salient points in 'Addendum to "AIT and Scholarship"': reply to Prof Witzel and incorporating some (lengthy) remarks of V Agarwal. All this was completed and posted in sept 2001 here. The most significant point, apart from Prof Witzel's irrelevances, is N Achar's firm discovery that some astronomical dates in the Mahabharata indicate the date of 3067 BC for the Great War.
(Download the PDF file - 140kB)

‘Rigvedic Town and Ocean: Witzel vs Frawley’. March 2003.

In this paper is examined the controversy between D. Frawley and M. Witzel in the newspaper The Hindu (June and July 2003). Frawley claimed that the Rigveda knew of both towns and ocean citing pur ‘fort, town’ and samudra ‘ocean, sea’. Witzel attacked both claims writing that pur means only some mud-palisade or simple fortification while samudra means confluence or heavenly ocean. N Kazanas shows that pur means not a material structure at all but a magical, occult protective shield and that samudra   does in many cases mean ‘ocean’.

(Download the PDF file - 172kB)

Rigvedic pur ’. October 2004.

This paper was published first by Adyar Library Bulletin in 2002. It was revised subsequently several times but found no acceptance (in the West). In 2006 Man and Environment published a revised version.
The paper examines the use of pur and shows that in the RV it never denotes 'city, fort' as is usually taken to mean but a magical, occult defence in the non-material world.

(Download the updated PDF file - 76kB, October 2004)

'Greek Philosophy up to Aristotle' November 2003.

This study outlines the philosophical ideas in Ancient Greece from the Homeric epics to Aristotle examining briefly the essential views of every thinker. Of course, with the Pre-socratics one relies only on the extant fragments. (It is to be published in India by the PHISPC.)

(GPA: the text - PDF file - 180kB)

(GPA: bibliography - PDF file - 64kB)

(GPA: map of the Greek world, early 6th century BCE- PDF file - 420kB)

'Education & Ethics' by N. Kazanas

This paper was presented at the New Delhi Conference organized by UNESCO and the Indian Ministry of Civilization on 'Dialogue among Civilizations: Quest for New Perspectives' 9-10th July 2003.

(Download the PDF file - 80kB)

'Sanskrit and Proto-Indo-European' by N. Kazanas

This essay is published in 2004 Indian Linguistics. It challenges many generally accepted notions in IndoEuropean linguistics like the 5-grade ablaut, labio-velar sounds, roots etc. At the same time it discloses the great antiquity of Sanskrit (or Vedic) and argues that the Sanskrit retroflex sounds are ProtoIndoEuropean, but lost in the other IE stocks.

(Download the PDF file - 160kB)

" A Reply to Michael Witzel's ‘Ein Fremdling im Rgveda' " by Vishal Agarwal, 11 August 2003.

(Journal of Indo-European Studies, Vol. 31, No.1-2: pp.107-185, 2003).

The " A Reply to Michael Witzel's 'Ein Fremdling im Rgveda' " was sent to us by V.Agarwal (Minesotta, USA).  It was written in July 2003 as a reply to Prof M. Witzel's 'Ein Fremdling im Rgveda', 2003, Journal of Indo-European Studies, and was posted on the Journal's website.  It provides supplementary material to N. Kazanas' 'Final Reply' covering various aspects not dealt with by, or unknown to the latter.  One should note that when Kazanas mentions "black copper" (kRshNa-/karshaNa-ayas or Syama-  'swarthy metal') he nowhere means bronze as Witzel takes it (p 175) and Agarwal need not have elaborated the bronze-aspect.

(Download the PDF file -595kB)

'Philosophy in Hellenistic and Roman Times.' by N.Kazanas
This study examines the main philosophical trends after Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. It includes the Cynics and other Socratic offshoots; the Epicureans, the Stoics and the Sceptics; Also certain individuals like Cicero, Seneca, Philo (Alex), Plutarch et al. It attempts to extract Christ's teaching itself from the early sources ignoring the usual theological doctrines; the Gnostic texts are also examined in this connection. It ends with a look at Plotinos and the subsequent Neoplatonists.
(PHRT: the text -PDF file- 916kB)
(PHRT: glossary and Bibliography -PDF file- 156kB)

Closing the chapter on the 'Aryan problem'

by Navaratna Rajaram

Recent findings combined with the British admission of its complicity in propagating the Aryan invasion as an imperial tool should put an end to the debate.

(Download the PDF file - 160kB)

Planetarium Software and the Date of the Mahabharata War
B. N. Narahari Achar
The University of Memphis, Memphis TN 38152

The importance of determining the date of the Mahabharata war for ancient Indian chronology can hardly be overstated. A plethora of dates, derived on the basis of a number of diverse methodologies have been proposed and a consensus has yet to be reached. A number of authors have concentrated on the references to astronomical events such as eclipses found in the epic as a basis for determining the date of the war. However, it has not been possible to arrive at a definite date on the basis of astronomical references either. A new tool in the form of Planetarium Software  has become available for examining the astronomical references. It is the purpose of this paper to report some preliminary results that have been obtained in applying this tool for the purpose of determining the date of the Mahabharata war. 

Preliminary results indicate that Planetarium software can be used with advantage by simulating views of the ancient skies to determine the date of the Mahabharata war .
The work is supported in part by a Faculty Research Grant of the University of Memphis. The author also wishes to thank Dr. Kalyanaraman for suggesting this problem and for bringing Raghavan's work to his notice.

(Download the PDF file - 108 kB)

Is There Evidence for the Indo-Aryan Immigration to India?

by Vishal Agarwal

The complete lack of mention of an Aryan immigration into India in the vast Vedic literature has been considered a moot point by historians for several decades. Recently however, some scholars have claimed that a Vedic text finally provides evidence for the migration of Indo-Aryan speakers from Afghanistan into India.

(Download the PDF file - 76 kB)

Indigenous Indoaryans and the Rigveda.
published by the Journal of Indo-European Studies in 2002

In this paper the writer argues that the IndoAryans are indigenous from at least 4500 BCE and possibly 7000 BCE. In this effort are utilized the latest archaeological finds and data from Archaeoastronomy, Anthropology and Palaeontology. He uses in addition neglected cultural and linguistic evidence. He finds no evidence at all for an invasion. The new term “migration” for the alleged Indoaryan entry into N-W India is a misnomer since a migration could not have produced the results found in that area. The Rigveda is neither post-Harappan nor contemporaneous with the Indus-Sarasvati Culture but much earlier, i.e. from the 4th millennium (with minor insignificant exceptions) and perhaps before.

(Download the PDF file - 300kB)

Vedic Religio-philosophical Thought.
Sept. 2003
Part A of the study Vedic, Mesopotamian and Egyptian Religiophilosophical Thought (in print by PHISPC in the volume Chain of Golden Civilizations).
This paper is a study of Vedic thought tracing the theme of One and Many and Man's Self-realization from the RV to the Upanishads. In this the writer examines some ideas about the nature of 'civilization' and traces a unifying thread running through the RV, AV, Brahmanas and Upanishads, i.e. man's return to his source which is the Supreme Godhead, Itself unmanifest but the Primal Cause of all manifestations.

(Download the PDF file - 188 kB)

Vedic and Mesopotamian Cross-influences.
Published in Migration & Diffusion (Vienna) 2005 and after some minor revisions it was subsequently published by the Adyar Library Bulletin (2006: Olcott commemorative issue). This was incorporated in the study Vedic, Mesopotamian and Egyptian Religiophilosophical Thought (in print by PHISPC in the volume Chain of Golden Civilizations)

(Download the PDF file - 192 kB)

Vedic and Egyptian Affinities.
This paper was written independently in 2002 and has been published in 2006 in Puratattva. This piece was incorporated in the study Vedic, Mesopotamian and Egyptian Religiophilosophical Thought (in print by PHISPC in the volume Chain of Golden Civilizations)
There are more than 20 motifs/themes exhibiting close affinities in the religious texts of the Vedic and Egyptian peoples. Some like the Sungod’s boat, the Water as a primal cosmogonic element, the Cow of plenty and the sacred Bull are common to the Mesopotamian culture too. Some are quite extraordinary and occur only here with some weak echoes in other Indoeuropean branches: the lotus-born one, the eye running off, etc, including many elements in the famous Isis-Osiris tale. These affinities are close and suggest either a common origin for both cultures or cross influences. However, most of the motifs, including the Isis-Osiris and Yama tales, have correspondences in other IE traditions: this fact suggests that the motifs are inherited in the Vedic texts and not borrowed from Egypt. Thus we must conclude either that Saptasindhu, the land of the Vedic people, influenced Egypt or that both cultures derive or borrow from a third unknown one. The former case is difficult to determine as there is no firm evidence for an early contact between Egypt and Saptasindhu. Consequently, without entirely ruling out the possibility of Vedic influences on Egyptian culture we must assume a devolution from an older unknown civilization.

(Download the PDF file - 124 kB)

Anatolian Bull and Vedic Horse.
'Anatolian Bull and Vedic Horse' was first published in the Adyar Library Bulletin (2003) but this version is revised and expanded.
In this paper the writer examines the presence of bull and horse in the various IE branches. It is noteworthy that the IE stem for ‘horse’ is absent in Hittite while all other major branches have it. The horse has no place at all in the religion, ritual or mythology; the horse’s function is taken over by the bull. This alone suffices to show that the Hittites are not indigenous in Anatolia as some scholars claim and that therefore, Anatolia is not the original PIE homeland. Other types of evidence are used from mythology and linguistics to support this conclusion. The myth of the Weather god killing the dragon, which is a common IE theme (India, Greece, Scandinavia etc), is quite swamped by Near-eastern material. The Hittite language itself has some IE relics but is otherwise flooded with Mesopotamian, Hurrian and Assyrian elements.

(Download the PDF file - 116 kB)

'Diffusion of Indo-European Theonyms: what they show us'
This paper was published in the Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society (Bangalore) Vol 97, No 1 (Jan-March 2006).
In presenting this collection of 20 Vedic and Indo-European theonyms the writer discusses the derivation of some and argue that, since the Rigveda alone contains all these names, it must be older than other IndoEuropean texts and more clearly indicative of the Proto-Indo-European culture, while Vedic is both older and closer to Proto-Indo-European than any other branch. Moreover, since the RV is richer in cultural and linguistic elements than other early IE traditions we can conclude that the Vedic speakers moved very little or not at all from the PIE homeland. These ideas have been published elsewhere and attracted some criticism mainly from J. P. Mallory; this is now being refuted.

(Download the PDF file - 164 kB)

'Coherence and Preservation in Sanskrit'
Published in VVRI 2006

This paper examines more than 400 lexical items that have cognations in 3 or more IE branches (Vedic, Greek, Italic etc) and denote as far as possible invariable things, qualities and activities (bodily parts, relations and actions like breathing, dressing, rising etc). Sanskrit appears to have lost far fewer items and preserves much greater inner organic coherence than the other branches. This supports the general idea that Sanskrit is much closer to Proto-Indo-European and that, since this could happen only in sedentary conditions, the Indoaryan speakers of Sanskrit did not move (much) from the original homeland. Moreover, the criticism that this conclusion does not take into account the large literature in Sanskrit is shown to be fallacious. This collection of words is a good treasury for any comparisons.

(Download the PDF file - 416 kB)

'The RV is pre-Harappan'
This paper was presented as a talk in June 2006 at the Center for Indic Studies in the University of Massachusetts.
This paper presents the evidences and arguments for a Rigveda composed in its bulk in the 4th millennium BCE. A basic consideration (but not the only one) is that the RV has no knowledge at all of many features that characterise the Harappan culture which began to emerge solidly c3000. Since the bulk of the RV must be assigned to a period before 3000 and since this is by general consensus stated to have been composed in Saptasindhu, then the Indoaryans or Vedic people were present in that location before 3000 and must therefore be regarded as indigenous by 1500, when, they are alleged to move in by the Aryan Invasion/Immigration Theory.

(Download the PDF file - 1.004 kB)

Omilos Meleton, Cultural Institute
15, Archimedes street, N. Ionia 14232, Athens, Greece tel: +30 210 7015472